Overall, China limits the amount of renminbi available for trading redemption and swaps were used to obtain the renminbi after these limit values were reached. In October 2010, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority and the People`s Bank of China (PBoC) exchanged 20 billion yuan (about $3 billion) to enable Hong Kong companies to establish renminbi trade with the mainland. In 2014, China used its swap line with Korea to obtain 400 million won (about $400,000). These were then loaned to a commercial bank in China, which used them to provide commercial financing for the payment of imports from Korea. Both the State Department and the Treasury were consulted on countries that meet the Fed`s criteria that “increased pressure in [these countries] could trigger unwelcome radiation for both the U.S. economy and the international economy in general.” The minutes of the FOMC meeting at which the final decision was made show that members had very specific concerns, such as whether countries with large mortgage-backed securitizations issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac could be tempted to eliminate them all at the same time if they did not have access to the dollar. , which would increase mortgage rates and hinder the recovery in the United States. In his book International Liquidity and the Financial Crisis, William Allen gives estimates for a number of countries on the gap between the level of bank liabilities in a given currency, which was to be refinanced, and the funds available for that purpose. Among emerging countries, brazil`s banking system had the largest dollar deficit and the Korean banking system was the largest dollar deficit among Asian banking systems. The Fed traded lines to emerging markets, such as developed economies, helped close those dollar spreads and lowered the dollar`s interest rates. Despite this, trade deficits and net RMB outflows between trading partners continue to represent the risk of offshore illiquidity that threatens China`s grand strategy. To combat this, China has begun to sign bilateral swap agreements (“BSA”) with almost all concerned. Currently, China has $500 billion in agreements in 35 countries – more than any other country by far – that provide RMB liquidity to trading partners with dry markets to boost long-term trade.
To date, swap options have remained largely unused, which is likely a moderate foreign interest product for the renminbi; However, swaps could be increasingly used in global introductions of RMB. This agreement will allow India and Japan to trade in their own currencies and ease pressure on India`s current account balance. The central bank liquidity swap is a kind of currency swap used by one country`s central bank to provide liquidity to another country`s central bank. In a liquidity swap, the lending central bank uses its currency to buy the currency of another central bank lending at the market exchange rate and agrees to resell the borrower`s currency at a rate reflecting the interest accrued on the loan.